Because his father, Alexander Stirling Calder, received public commissions, the family traversed the country throughout Calder's childhood. Calder was encouraged to create, and from the age of eight he always had his own workshop wherever the family lived. For Christmas inCalder presented his parents with two of his first sculptures, a tiny dog and duck cut from a brass sheet and bent into formation. The duck is kinetic—it rocks back and forth when tapped.
The story of the United States has always been one of westward expansion, beginning along the East Coast and continuing, often by leaps and bounds, until it reached the Pacific—what Theodore Roosevelt described as "the great leap Westward.
Even before the American colonies won their independence from Britain in the Revolutionary War, settlers were migrating westward into what are now the states of Kentucky and Tennessee, as well as parts of the Ohio Valley and the Deep South.
The Monroe Doctrine, adopted inwas the closest America ever came to making Manifest Destiny official policy; it put European nations on notice that the U.
Westward the Course of Empire The debate over whether the U. When the Dred Scott case prevented Congress from passing laws prohibiting slavery and the Kansas-Nebraska act gave citizens of new states the right to decide for themselves whether their state would be free or slaveholding, a wave of settlers rushed to populate the Kansas-Nebraska Territory in order to make their position—pro- or anti-slavery—the dominant one when states were carved out of that territory.
The slavery debate intensified after the Republic of Texas was annexed and new lands acquired as a result of the Mexican War and an agreement with Britain that gave the U. The question was only settled by the American Civil War and the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution prohibiting slavery.
When gold was discovered in California, acquired through the treaty that ended the war with Mexico inwaves of treasure seekers poured into the area.
The California Gold Rush was a major factor in expansion west of the Mississippi. That westward expansion was greatly aided by the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad inand passage of the Homestead Act in That act provided free acre lots in the unsettled West to anyone who would file a claim, live on the land for five years and make improvements to it, including building a dwelling.
The acquisition of Hawaii and Alaska in the midth century assured westward expansion would continue into the 20th century. The great losers in this westward wave were the Native American tribes.
Displaced as new settlers moved in, they lost their traditional way of life and were relegated to reservations.
However, westward expansion provided the United States with vast natural resources and ports along the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf coasts for expanding trade, key elements in creating the superpower America is today. It was the notion that Americans and the institutions of the U.
Those beliefs had their origins in the Puritan settlements of New England and the idea that the New World was a new beginning, a chance to correct problems in European government and society—a chance to get things right.
We have it in our power to begin the world over again. The Whig Party stood in opposition, in part because Whigs feared a growing America would bring with it a spread of slavery.
In the case of the Oregon Territory of the Pacific Northwest, for example, Whigs hoped to see an independent republic friendly to the United States but not a part of it, much like the Republic of Texas but without slavery. Democrats wanted that region, which was shared with Great Britain, to become part and parcel of the United States.
Citizens of the Midwestern states were more inclined to active acquisition of territory, rather than relying on noncoercive persuasion. As the century wore on, the South came to view Manifest Destiny as an opportunity to secure more territory for the creation of additional slaveholding states in Central America and the Caribbean.
It also nearly resulted in war with Great Britain over the Oregon Territory.Interpreting the Mexican Revolution Alan Knight Department of History University ofTexas at Austin Historians should probably not spend too much time writing or reading. The Mexican Revolution was a complex and bloody conflict which arguably spanned two decades, and in which , people lost their lives.
Emiliano Zapata was one of the leading figures in the Mexican Revolution and is now considered one of the national heroes of Mexico: towns, streets and housing developments named "Emiliano Zapata" are common across the country.
The popular heroes of the Mexican Revolution are the two radicals who lost: Emiliano Zapata and . Watch video · Emiliano Zapata was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution (–), during which he formed and commanded the Liberation Army of the South, an important revolutionary urbanagricultureinitiative.com: Aug 08, Two great figures, These slogans have not ceased to resonate in Mexican society.
The Mexican Revolution started in , when liberals and intellectuals began to challenge the regime of dictator Porfirio Díaz, who had been in power since The Mexican Revolution was the best thing that ever happened to Pascual Orozco. A small-time mule driver and peddler, when the revolution broke out he raised an army and found he had a knack for leading men.
He was an important ally for Madero in his quest for the presidency.