He is visited before dawn by his old friend Crito, who has made arrangements to smuggle Socrates out of prison to the safety of exile. Socrates seems quite willing to await his imminent execution, and so Crito presents as many arguments as he can in order to persuade Socrates to escape. Also, Socrates should not worry about the risk or the financial cost to his friends; these they are willing to pay, and they have also arranged to find Socrates a pleasant life in exile. On a more ethical level, Crito presents two more pressing arguments:
Summary[ edit ] The dialogue takes place in Socrates' prison cell, where he awaits execution. He is visited before dawn by his old friend Crito, who has made arrangements to smuggle Socrates out of prison to the safety of exile.
Socrates seems quite willing to await his imminent execution, and so Crito presents as many arguments as he can in order to persuade Socrates to escape. On a practical level, Socrates' death will reflect badly on his friends--people will think they did nothing to try to save him.
Also, Socrates should not worry about the risk or the financial cost to his friends; these they are willing to pay, and they have also arranged to find Socrates a pleasant life in exile. On a more ethical level, Crito presents two more pressing arguments: Socrates answers first that one should not worry about public opinion, but only listen to wise and expert advice.
Crito should not worry about how his, Socrates', or others' reputations may fare in the general esteem: The only question at hand is whether or not it would be Socrates the apology and crito for Socrates to attempt an escape. If it is just, he will go with Crito, if it is unjust, he must remain in prison and face death.
At this point, Socrates introduces the voice of the Laws of Athens, which speaks to him and proceeds to explain why it would be unjust for him to leave his cell. Since the Laws exist as one entity, to break one would be to break them all, and in doing so, Socrates would cause them great harm.
The citizen is bound to the Laws like a child is bound to a parent, and so to go against the Laws would be like striking a parent. Rather than simply break the Laws and escape, Socrates should try to persuade the Laws to let him go. These Laws present the citizen's duty to them in the form of a kind of social contract.
By choosing to live in Athens, a citizen is implicitly endorsing the Laws, and is willing to abide by them. Socrates, more than most, should be in accord with this contract, as he has lived a happy seventy years fully content with the Athenian way of life.
If Socrates were to break from prison now, having so consistently validated the social contract, he would be making himself an outlaw who would not be welcome in any other civilized state for the rest of his life.
And when he dies, he will be harshly judged in the underworld for behaving unjustly toward his city's laws. Thus, Socrates convinces Crito that it would be better not to attempt an escape.
Crito's argument to Socrates[ edit ] The dialogue begins with Socrates waking up to the presence of Crito in his prison cell and inquiring whether it is early in the day. Crito explains that he admires the peaceful manner in which Socrates has heretofore lived and the level of calm that Socrates displays in the face of death.
Socrates replies that it is only fitting that he react in such a manner given his age, and expresses surprise that the guard has let Crito into his cell at such an early hour.
Crito informs Socrates that he is well-acquainted with the guard and has done him a certain benefaction. Crito relays bad news to Socrates. He tells him that there are eyewitness reports that the ship has come in from Delosand that tomorrow Socrates will be executed.
Socrates rebuffs the report, saying he has had a dream—a vision of a woman in a white cloak telling him that on the third day hence he will go to Phthiawhich is a reference to Achilles ' threat in the Iliad that he—the mightiest of Greek warriors—might just leave for his home in "fertile" Phthia and be there in "just three days" if the Greeks fail to show him due respect.
Socrates says that the meaning of this is perfectly clear - it will be three days until he dies. Crito does not allow Socrates to elaborate the meaning of the dream, but only calls him daimonic ; Crito has arrived at this early hour to save Socrates from death. Crito tells Socrates that if he follows through with the execution, people will assume that Crito and friends were too cheap to finance an escape.
Crito insists that he will not get into much trouble as a result of having helped Socrates escape, for those who would inform against him are cheaply bought. Moreover, Crito urges, Socrates has support in other cities, including Thessalyand to be exiled would not be entirely negative.
Crito continues with moral appeals. He says that Socrates would be unjustly joining the efforts of his enemies against him. He is choosing the "easiest path" as opposed to the courageous, honorable, and virtuous path, which Crito feels is to flee from certain, unjust death.
Socrates would be acting with cowardice if he weren't to resist such injustices. Crito further argues that a father like Socrates has an obligation to nurture and educate his children and should avoid orphaning them if at all possible.
He tells Socrates that if his sons do not meet with the usual fate of orphans, it will be no thanks to him. Crito adds that the trial should never have taken place and might have been managed differently.
He says that the failure to escape will be a ridiculous climax to the whole affair and would be attributed to the shameful cowardice of Socrates' friends. Socrates claims that he was serious at his trial about not fearing death. He expresses contempt for the opinions of the masses of mankind who think irrationally and act randomly.
Socrates says that the only person whose opinion is of value is the one who understands justice. Socrates argues that if it is never good to do injustice, then certainly it is never good to do injustice in response to injustice.Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Apology, Crito, and Phaedo of Socrates at urbanagricultureinitiative.com Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users.
About Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, and Phaedo. The Apology contains an account of Socrates' defense of himself after he had been charged with being a corrupter of the youth and one who refuses to accept the popular beliefs concerning the gods of the city of Athens.
It is generally regarded as the most authentic account on record of what. Socrates of Athens: Euthyphro, Socrates' Defense, CRITO, and the Death Scene from PhAedo PLATO Translated by Cathal Woods and Ryan Pack This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No.
Plato's The Apology is an account of the speech Socrates makes at the trial in which he is charged with not recognizing the gods recognized by the state, inventing new deities, and corrupting the youth of Athens. Socrates' speech, however, is by no means an "apology" in .
Socrates then proceeds to interrogate Meletus, the man primarily responsible for bringing Socrates before the jury. This is the only instance in The Apology of the elenchus, or cross-examination, which is so central to most Platonic dialogues.
Summary. The dialogue takes place in Socrates' prison cell, where he awaits execution. He is visited before dawn by his old friend Crito, who has made arrangements to smuggle .