The main governing body at tertiary level is the University Grants Commission. Which enforces its standards, advises the government, and help coordinate between the centre and the state? Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission. As ofIndia has 2 central university state universities, deemed universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the state act, and 13institutes which are of national importance.
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Cohort characteristics at enrollment [version 1; referees: Gates Open Res2: Further, preterm infants who survive are at an elevated risk of long-term respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurodevelopmental morbidities.
These complications may affect subsequent health, growth, psychosocial functioning, and even economic capacity of these individuals 5 — 7.
The greatest burden of mortality and morbidity from preterm births occur in low- and middle-income countries LMICs 8. Of an estimated Each year there are 77, preterm births and 6, infant deaths due to preterm birth complications 9.
Although the increasing availability of maternal antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic reductions in pediatric HIV incidence 11it does not seem to reduce HIV-attributable preterm birth in this population.
In fact, antiretroviral drug exposure may in fact increase the risk of preterm birth among some HIV-infected gravidas 12 — Preterm birth can result from many different etiological entities. Approximately one-third of preterm deliveries are indicated because of pre-eclampsia, hemorrhage, abnormal placentation, intra-uterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios, or multi-fetal gestation.
The underlying causes of spontaneous preterm birth in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected populations are not well understood. Although several maternal and newborn interventions e.
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Much remains to be discovered about the risk factors, causes, and pathophysiology of preterm delivery, and how to prevent its occurrence. The cohort was established to be a local resource to the University of Zambia School of Medicine and to contribute to general scientific knowledge around the biology of pregnancy and parturition.
The Women and Newborn Hospital receives referrals for high-risk pregnancies, including those with complex medical histories, history of prior preterm birth, stillbirth, or pregnancy loss, and has a very busy labor ward with approximately 18, deliveries per year Study participants are recruited from the UTH and five nearby high-volume Lusaka district health clinics.
We established this cohort with the aim to better characterize demographic determinants, biomedical causes, and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with adverse birth outcomes in Lusaka, Zambia. Through the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth, we collaborate with a consortium of international scientists, many of whom are also working in LMIC countries, in order to advance our understanding of the causes of preterm delivery.
Primary objective Our primary objective in this study is to establish a well-characterized cohort of pregnant women and their infants — and an accompanying specimen biorepository — with follow-up through delivery and the postpartum period.
Study procedures Potential participants are identified at an early antenatal visit. Community educators approach participants who may be preliminarily eligible by gestational age criteria based on reported last menstrual period and fundal height.
Potentially eligible women are escorted to the UTH study clinic. Women deemed eligible for study participation and choosing to participate are administered an informed consent in the language of their choice: English, Nyanja, or Bemba.
While screening and enrollment procedures may occur on the same day, women could return on a subsequent day for enrollment to allow time to consider the risks and benefits of study participation and to discuss the study with their family.
Clinical care and follow-up Study participants receive routine antenatal care at the ZAPPS study clinic at the UTH, with visits scheduled at enrollment, 24 weeks, 32 weeks, and 36 weeks of gestation, according to standard of care in Zambia.
Additionally, women are asked to return to the clinic for a postpartum visit, typically 6 weeks after delivery Table 1.Welcome! Watertown University provides an active, versatile, and challenging learning environment which helps each student develop to their fullest academic, social, physical, and emotional potential.
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Part of a series on innovative models and best practices for local health departments' involvement in Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act outreach and enrollment, this report summarizes a case study on Tacoma--Pierce County, Washington.