May this essay be useful in your academic research, or revolutionary activities. Also, enjoy reading my poetic musings; the links are just below this essay. It is a fusion of German philosophy, mainly the dialectics of HegelFrench socialism, and British political economy. This combination makes Marxism unique among other philosophies in history.
Based on the socialist and dialectical theories of Karl Marx, Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections of the social institutions out of which they are born. According to Marxists, even literature itself is a social institution and has a specific ideological function, based on the background and ideology of the author.
In essence, Marxists believe that a work of literature is not a result of divine inspiration or pure artistic endeavor, but that it arises out of the economic and ideological circumstances surrounding its creation.
For Marxist critics, works of literature often mirror the creator's own place in society, and they interpret most texts in relation to their relevance regarding issues of class struggle as depicted in a work of fiction.
It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but on the contrary their social being, that determines their consciousness. Although Marx and Friedrich Engels detailed theories of Socialism early in the twentieth century, it was not until the s that Marxist literary theory was systematized.
The greatest impetus for this standardization came after the October Revolution of in Russia. The resulting socialist form of government and society, although uncertain about the length of time it would take for the new economic standards to create a new culture, believed that such a change was imminent.
In the meantime, Socialist Realism was accepted as the highest form of literature, guiding both literary creation and official literary criticism in Russia.
In the years since then, Russian literary theory has modified its extreme socialist stance to acknowledge that literary creation is a result of both subjective inspiration and the objective influence of the writer's surroundings.
He has defined his Marxist theories of literature and criticism in such works as Die Eigenart des Asthetischenand remains central to the study of Marxist criticism today.
In addition to being the guiding principle behind most literary works in communist and socialist Russia, Marxism also greatly influenced Western writers. Many writers, including Richard Wright, Claude McKay, Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and James Joyce, were deeply influenced with Marxist and socialist theories of the day, and much of this reflection is evident in their writings of the time.
In the case of Claude McKay, Marxist theory provided a framework for issues of racial inequality and justice that were often addressed in his works.
Following the failure of the Communist revolution, Marxist critics and writers were faced with the realization that Socialism had failed as a practical ideology.
In recent years, literary criticism has expanded in scope to address issues of social and political significance.
Marxist critics such as Raymond Williams and Fredric Jameson have expanded their realm of study to include cultural and political studies in their interpretations of literature. In this regard, Marxist critics, along with feminists, have begun studying literary criticism as an aspect of cultural sciences, notes Michael Ryan in his essay on the state of contemporary cultural and literary studies.Ten Theses on Marxism Today.
Translated: by Andrew Giles-Peters. From TELOS #26 (Winter ); The first step in re-establishing a revolutionary theory and practice consists in breaking with that Marxism which claims to monopolize revolutionary initiative as well as theoretical and practical direction.
|Introduction||In order to do that, it must be well organized and make a clear point. The framework and structure of the paper must be clear so as to direct the reader along the path of your argument.|
|What does the text tell us about contemporary social classes and how does it reflect classism?|
|Ten Theses on Marxism Today Translated: It no longer makes sense to ask to what extent the teaching of Marx and Engels is, today, theoretically acceptable and practically applicable.|
5. But then the struggle between thesis and antithesis is resolved into a third position, or set of ideas or practices, which Hegel calls the "synthesis." Then, of course, the synthesis eventually becomes a thesis, with an antithesis, and the whole process starts over.
Marxism Essay Words | 6 Pages.
Marxism Marxist criticism is inherently. A new type of society – socialism developing into communism – would be created, which would be without exploitation, without classes and without class conflict. Marx’s work has been subjected to a number of criticisms. First, Marx’s predictions have not come true.
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Jul 23, · A Short Essay on Marxism, Western History, and the Crisis (Thanks for viewing. May this essay be useful in your academic research, or revolutionary activities.
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