Constitutional law in the uk essay

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Constitutional law in the uk essay

Forest law By Jane Winters, Institute of Historical Research Before the Conquest the kings of England enjoyed the right to hunt freely on their own lands, but in this they did not differ significantly from any other landowner.

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This changed with the arrival of William the Conqueror. In Normandy the strict preservation of game was confined to the ducal demesne, but the conquest of England offered a unique opportunity to extend the sphere of influence. At this stage it seems likely that the protection of hunting rights was still of paramount importance.

William the Conqueror and his sons were notorious in their devotion to hunting. The compiler of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle noted that William As far as the organization and administration of the royal forest is concerned the single surviving pipe roll from the reign of Henry I is invaluable.

Constitutional law uk essays the evolution

The pipe roll records revenue that is clearly derived from a general forest visitation. The efforts of the justices were concentrated in the south of England, although the forest of the bishopric of Chester was visited and pleas were heard in Gloucestershire and Huntingdonshire.

It would not be until the second half of the twelfth century that the unique financial potential of the forest began to be exploited systematically, but the change in emphasis had begun.

A regard, yielding significant financial returns, was undertaken as early as 7 and by the mid s the framework that would survive into the next century and beyond was well established. Bybetween one third and one quarter of England was considered by the king as within the bounds of the royal forest 8 and some twenty-nine counties were affected to Constitutional law in the uk essay greater or lesser degree.

Anyone dwelling or holding land within the forest bounds was subject to a complex set of regulations, implemented by royal officials answerable only to the king.

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They were prevented from hunting freely but, more importantly, the laws of the vert denied them the right to utilise their land as they saw fit. Amercements were imposed for offences falling into three main categories: Waste, as the name implies, occurred when land was cleared.

Individuals found guilty of waste were not only burdened with a punitive amercement but also had to pay a sum equivalent to the value of any trees or brushwood that they had cut down. The waste of forest land might be the result of the over-zealous collection of wood for fuel or building, but it was frequently a prelude to assarting, that is the creation of new arable land.

Constitutional law in the uk essay

As with waste the creation of an assart frequently resulted in a dual financial penalty; an initial amercement could be supplemented by an annual rent for the maintenance of the newly cleared ground.

If the assarted land was enclosed or built upon, an additional amercement would be imposed for what was called a purpresture. Finally, there were payments connected with the grazing of livestock, such as pannage.

Perhaps the most telling description of the royal forest is offered by Richard fitz Nigel in his Dialogus de Scaccario The forest has its own laws, based At the most basic level each forest was patrolled by a number of riding and walking foresters, responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the forest law.

They served under foresters-in-fee who in turn served under a warden or keeper. These men, and sometimes women, 11 were supported by agisters, verderers and regarders. They were often men of some local standing, who were elected in the county court. Overseeing the whole was the chief justice of the forest.

Of greatest significance locally was the attachment court, presided over by the verderers. The foresters presented information as to the wrongdoing that they had uncovered since the last meeting 14 and offenders were generally attached to appear before the justices in eyre when they next visited the county.

The verderers had no power to deal with those who had committed offences against the venison, but they could impose fines for minor offences against the vert.

The usual procedure was for the inhabitants of the four nearest townships to be summoned and examined on oath as to what had happened in a particular case. The last tier of the local administration was the triennial regard, effectively a review of the state of the vert.

The twelve regarders were furnished with certain articles or questions to which they had to provide answers. The eyre, usually presided over by the chief justice, was fundamental to the running of the royal forest and, more importantly, to its successful financial exploitation. Revenue derived from regular payments, such as pannage, could be collected independently and local forest courts could deal with minor infringements against the vert, but anything of a more serious nature had to be dealt with by the justices in eyre.

The local administration could function on a daily basis without central interference, but regular visitations were essential in the long term.

The great bulk of forest revenue was derived from fines and amercements imposed in the course of the eyre. The range of these financial penalties was huge, depending on the severity of the offence and the ability of the individual to pay. Minor offences against the vert commonly resulted in an amercement of a few shillings, but those guilty of more serious wastes or offences against the venison could find themselves owing hundreds of pounds.UK Top Writers recommendations reviewed by Janet Reeves.

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And yet knowing all the latest developments is essential to writing good academic papers. Constitutional Law May be deemed elusive and immaterial when the constitutions in Consideration are either dead, hogwash and unrealistic.

Critically analyze the above statement using relevant case law and statutory provisions. American Constitutional Law, Volume I, Sources of Power and Restraint, 6th (): Jr.

Otis H. Stephens, II .

Constitutional law in the uk essay

constitutional conventions given at the start of this essay demonstrate the way in which conventions have enabled the UK constitution to adapt to the growth of ideas concerning democratic legitimacy. This essay has been submitted by a law student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

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