Discussion of the aim of education is a function of the philosophy of education or 'educational theory'. The different understandings of education cultivate different avenues of human possibility. The root of the word 'education' is derived from the Latin 'e-ducare' literally meaning to 'lead forth' or bring out something which is potentially present. Education in the true sense is an activity, an endeavor, an enterprise which is related to the notion of bringing up, rearing, leading forth.
Self-actualization, according to Maslow, represents growth of an individual toward fulfillment of the highest needs; those for meaning in life, in particular.
Moreover, he states that self-actualizing individuals are able to resolve dichotomies such as that reflected in the ultimate contrary of free-will and determinism. He also contends that self-actualizers are highly creative, psychologically robust individuals.
It is argued herein that a dialectical transcendence of ascension toward self-actualization better describes this type of self-actualization, and even the mentally ill, whose psychopathology correlates with creativityhave the capacity to self-actualize. Physiological needs, such as needs for food, sleep and air.
Safety, or the needs for security and protection, especially those that emerge from social or political instability. Belonging and love including, the needs of deficiency and selfish taking instead of giving, and unselfish love that is based upon growth rather than deficiency.
Needs for self-esteemself-respect, and healthy, positive feelings derived from admiration. It is clear that the self-actualized person might be in danger of dying, but nevertheless may find meaning in life.
Mahatma Gandhi, Viktor Frankl, and Nelson Mandela may serve as examples of people who each personify a reality self-actualization. The safety needs of these individuals may have been threatened in these particular life circumstances, but it may be understood that many people whose safety needs are compromised may be cognizant of being values.
They may find life to be meaningful explicitly because of situations of danger to their lives, situations represented by the dichotomy of life and death, in particular. While most dichotomies cannot be explicitly understood as resolvable, the above dichotomies can be seen to be resolved through creative activity.
The conscious and the unconscious parallel the free-will and determinism dichotomy, in that conscious action might be considered to be freely willed and unconscious action may be considered to rely largely on causality. Another dichotomy that explicates the artistic process is a resolution of subject and object.
Through art, there is a joining of the self and the other, a communication between the two. Essentially, art may culminate in dialogue between the artist and the audience, or self-dialogue and self-realization within the artist. Peak experiences, described as epiphanies, are also realized by both the subject and the object through art.
Art, more than any other type of communication, is perhaps the least dogmatic, even if it is indefinite. This is true for all forms of art.
Art may only be understood when it is interpreted by the self or the other, and this is accomplished by both the artist and his audience.
In this poem, she stated: Through unique and innovative language, she described her own peak experience. It is, then, the creative communication between herself and her audience and that epiphany within herself that allowed her to achieve that moment of self-actualization.
As stated, Plath was known to suffer from mental illness, and she may not be readily understood that be a self-actualizing individual.Foundations of Roger’s Theory. The study of the human personality has grown in increasing complexity.
What Rogers viewed as a ”missing link” in what were then the traditional methods of clinical treatment was what he identified as person-centered therapy. This study examined the self theory of Carl Rogers in depth. There are some important concepts illuminated well, considering one's personality development.
Its main focus was positive regard, self. Carl Rogers is considered the founder of Client-Centered Therapy. Knowing one’s self and others is key to the person-centered approach. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence. This means that self-actualization occurs when a person’s “ ideal self ” (i.e., who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image).
Abraham Maslow’s famous Hierarchy of Needs defines “self-actualization” as a state sought by all human beings once we have satisfied the more basic needs of survival, sexual gratification and belonging.
Carl Rogers, a colleague of Maslow’s and one of the founders of humanistic psychology. Biography. Carl Rogers was born January 8, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a .