Many stories will have animosity between a beautiful, highly advanced race or civilization, and a much more gritty, industrial, technological force. In many fantasy fictions these roles are filled by Elves and Dwarves. Elves are tall and slender, Dwarves are short and stout.
His father's family were a wealthy equestrian family.
Xenophon writes that he had asked the veteran Socrates for advice on whether to go with Cyrus, and that Socrates referred him to the divinely inspired Pythia. Xenophon's query to the oracle, however, was not whether or not to accept Cyrus' invitation, but "to which of the gods he must pray and do sacrifice, so that he might best accomplish Athens vs sparta political system intended journey and return in safety, with good fortune".
The oracle answered his question and told him to which gods to pray and sacrifice. When Xenophon returned to Athens and told Socrates of the oracle's advice, Socrates chastised him for asking so disingenuous a question Anabasis 3. Under the pretext of fighting Tissaphernesthe Persian satrap of IoniaCyrus assembled a massive army composed of native Persian soldiers, but also a large number of Greeks.
Prior to waging war against Artaxerxes, Cyrus proposed that the enemy was the Pisidiansand so the Greeks were unaware that they were to battle against the larger army of King Artaxerxes II Anabasis 1. At Tarsus the soldiers became aware of Cyrus's plans to depose the king, and as a result, refused to continue Anabasis 1.
However, Clearchusa Spartan general, convinced the Greeks to continue with the expedition. Despite effective fighting by the Greeks, Cyrus was killed in the battle Anabasis 1.
Shortly thereafter, Clearchus was invited to a peace conference, where, alongside four other generals and many captains, he was betrayed and executed Anabasis 2. Return[ edit ] Route of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand The mercenariesknown as the Ten Thousandfound themselves without leadership far from the sea, deep in hostile territory near the heart of Mesopotamiawith a hostile population and armies to deal with.
They elected new leaders, including Xenophon himself. Dodge says of Xenophon's generalship, "Xenophon is the father of the system of retreat, the originator of all that appertains to the science of rear-guard fighting.
He reduced its management to a perfect method. More originality in tactics has come from the Anabasis than from any dozen other books. Every system of war looks to this as to the fountain-head when it comes to rearward movements, as it looks to Alexander for a pattern of resistless and intelligent advance.
Necessity to Xenophon was truly the mother of invention, but the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior. No general ever possessed a grander moral ascendant over his men.
None ever worked for the safety of his soldiers with greater ardor or to better effect. Every day, these cavalry, finding no opposition from the Ten Thousand, moved cautiously closer and closer.
One night, Xenophon formed a body of archers and light cavalry. When the Persian cavalry arrived the next day, now firing within several yards, Xenophon suddenly unleashed his new cavalry in a shock charge, smashing into the stunned and confused enemy, killing many and routing the rest.
However, Xenophon quickly devised a plan: This created a bridge across which Xenophon led his men before the Persians could get to them.
That Xenophon was able to acquire the means of feeding his force in the heart of a vast empire with a hostile population was astonishing. Dodge notes, "On this retreat also was first shown the necessary, if cruel, means of arresting a pursuing enemy by the systematic devastation of the country traversed and the destruction of its villages to deprive him of food and shelter.
And Xenophon is moreover the first who established in rear of the phalanx a reserve from which he could at will feed weak parts of his line. This was a superb first conception. The Carduchians were "a fierce, war-loving race, who had never been conquered. Once the Great King had sent into their country an army ofmen, to subdue them, but of all that great host not one had ever seen his home again.
In the Battle of the Carduchian Defile, Xenophon had 8, men feint at this host and marched the other 2, to a pass revealed by a prisoner under the cover of a rainstorm, and "having made their way to the rear of the main pass, at daylight, under cover of the morning mist, they boldly pushed in upon the astonished Carducians.
The blare of their many trumpets gave notice of their successful detour to Xenophon, as well as added to the confusion of the enemy. The main army at once joined in the attack from the valley side, and the Carducians were driven from their stronghold.
With the Carduchians surging toward the Greek rear, Xenophon again faced the threat of total destruction in battle. Xenophon's scouts quickly found another ford, but the Persians moved and blocked this as well. Xenophon, in a cunning tactic reminiscent of that of Robert E. Lee before the Seven Days Battle, sent a small force back toward the other ford, causing the anxious Persians to detach a major part of their force parallel.
Xenophon stormed and completely overwhelmed the force at his ford, while the Greek detachment made a forced march to this bridgehead.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. The Elves vs.
Dwarves trope as used in popular culture. Many stories will have animosity between a beautiful, highly advanced race or civilization, and a . These are the basic political ideologies that are prevalent in contemporary times.
Of course, these are largely simplified, and most people don’t . The Classical Period or Golden Age of Greece, from around to BC, has given us the great monuments, art, philosophy, architecture and literature which are the building blocks of .
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Ancient Greece: Sparta vs. Athens Pretend your name is Poliphus, and you're living in ancient Athens with your family. Athens and Sparta are at war.