Turn-taking This article may be too technical for most readers to understand.
FOSS This is a formal outline for your final research paper. It will present your thesis, the major points in support of that thesis, and the sub-points supporting each major point.
It may have additional levels of sub-sub-points if you feel that is necessary. The basic idea of a formal outline is that different types of letters or numbers I, A, 1, a, i represent different levels of the hierarchy of your paper, and Articles outline topic sentence and closing are indented below main levels.
The reader should be able to see at a glance which are the main points, which are the secondary points, which are at the third level of importance, and so on. It should also be obvious which secondaery points belong under which main points. Usually this is accomplished by using different numbering for different levels, and indenting the less important levels.
Please follow those guidelines when writing your outline. In addition to the elements of a formal outline, please also: Include a thesis statement at the start. This list may differ from the one you submitted for the Preliminary Bibliography, if you have added new sources or eliminated old ones.
Topic and Sentence Outlines There are two major types of outline: Topic Outline Sentence Outline A topic outline lists words or phrases. A sentence outline lists complete sentences. A topic outline arranges your ideas hierarchically showing which are main and which are sub-pointsin the sequence you want, and shows what you will talk about.
As the name implies, it identifies all the little mini-topics that your paper will comprise, and shows how they relate. A sentence outline does all of this, plus it shows exactly what you will say about each mini-topic.
Each sentence, instead of simply identifying a mini-topic, is like a mini-thesis statement about that mini-topic. It expresses the specific and complete idea that that section of the paper will cover as part of proving the overall thesis.
The method described below will produce a sentence outline. Your sentence outline should, if done thoroughly and carefully, represent almost a first draft of your research paper. The purpose, in other words, of doing this work is not to make work for you, but to save you work in the long run by breaking the job down into smaller, manageable tasks.
A paper of 12 pages about 4, words might have four major topics or points, represented by roman numerals I - IV in the outline. This would mean each point would represent about three pages of the final paper.
These three pages will include background information, multiple sources, different pieces of evidence and explanation supporting that point, and often a brief description of alternative views and an explanation of why those views are not so convincing.
Finally, even smaller points under these might correspond to individual paragraphs in the final draft. Writing the Sentence Outline Write out your thesis at the top of the page.
Make a list of points you must prove to prove your thesis. What would someone have to agree with, in order to agree with the thesis? These will be the main sections of your paper.
On a new page, write your first main point. This is the thesis for that section of the paper. Make a list of the points you have to prove to prove that point.
These are your sub-points for that section. Repeat the process for each of your main points. First make sure which are main and which are supporting points. For example, you may find that what you thought was a main point is really part of proving another main point.After the topic sentence, there is the context for the quote.
This shows who said the quote and what were the happenings when the quote was said. In the analysis of the context for the quote, there is the quote from the text that should be well cited.
This is a formal outline for your final research paper. It will present your thesis, the major points in support of that thesis, and the sub-points supporting each major point. It may have additional levels of sub-sub-points if you feel that is necessary. Pearson Prentice Hall and our other respected imprints provide educational materials, technologies, assessments and related services across the secondary curriculum.
Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. The topic sentence for body paragraph 3 will be the opposing side’s argument and will include one piece of evidence to support their claim (the opposite of your thesis).
For your two refutations you will explain why the opposing side is wrong. Closing Arguments: 10 Keys to a Powerful Summation.
By Dennis S. Ellis and Adam M. Reich – September 18, An effective closing argument may turn a closely contested trial in your favor.