Whom may I contact for more information? What is a radiographer? A radiographer is a person who uses x-radiation, a knowledge of anatomy, and imaging principles to aid physicians in the diagnosis of disease, in monitoring patient progress, in controlled screenings for early detection, or in research. How can I become a radiographer?
Background A tumor marker is a substance such as a protein, antigen or hormone in the body that may indicate the presence of cancer.
Generally, these markers are specific to certain types of cancer and can be detected in blood, urine and tissue samples. The body may produce the marker in response to cancer or the tumor itself may produce the marker.
The detection of tumor markers may be used to determine a diagnosis or as an indicator of disease cancer progression. It can also be used to document clinical response to treatment. Tumor markers are normally produced in low quantities by cells in the body.
Detection of a higher-than-normal serum level by radioimmunoassay or immunohistochemical techniques usually indicates the presence of a certain type of cancer.
Currently, the main use of tumor mfarkers is to assess a cancer's response to treatment and to check for recurrence. In some types of cancer, tumor marker levels may reflect the extent or stage of the disease and can be useful in predicting how well the disease will respond to treatment.
A decrease or return to normal in the level of a tumor marker may indicate that the cancer has responded favorably to therapy. If the tumor marker level rises, it may indicate that the cancer is spreading.
Finally, measurements of tumor marker levels may be used after treatment has ended as a part of follow-up care to check for recurrence. However, in many cases the literature states that measurements of tumor marker levels alone are insufficient to diagnose cancer for the following reasons: High levels of B2M are an indicator of certain kinds of cancer, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma or kidney disease; Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin beta HCG — A type of tumor marker that may be found in higher than normal amounts in individuals with some types of cancer; Calcitonin — Hormone secreted by the thyroid that lowers blood calcium; Calretinin — A calcium-binding protein that is used as a marker in the evaluation of lung cancer and other diseases.
Chromogranin A — A protein found inside neuroendocrine cells, which releases chromogranin A and other hormones into the blood. Chromogranin A may be found in higher than normal amounts in individuals with certain neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer and other conditions Guanylyl cyclase c GCC — An enzyme that may be expressed only in the cells that line the intestine from the duodenum to the rectum.
Inhibin — One of two hormones designated inhibin-A and inhibin-B secreted by the gonads by Sertoli cells in the male and the granulosa cells in the female and inhibits the production of follicle-stimulating hormone FSH by the pituitary gland; Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH — Marker used to monitor treatment of testicular cancer; Mucin-1 MUC-1 — Carbohydrate antigen elevated in individuals with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung and prostate as well as other disorders; Napsin A — Protein used as a marker in the evaluation of lung cancer; Prealbumin — Marker of nutritional status and a sensitive indicator of protein synthesis.
Levels of PSA in the blood often increase in men with prostate cancer. Thyroglobulin — Protein found in the thyroid gland. Some thyroglobulin can be found in the blood and this amount may be measured after thyroid surgery to determine whether thyroid cancer has recurred; Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 TTF-1 — A protein that is used as a tumor marker in the evaluation of lung cancer; Transferrin — A protein in blood plasma that carries iron derived from food intake to the liver, spleen and bone marrow.
Tumors may be evaluated with histology, which involves examination of the structure, especially the microscopic structure, of organic tissues. Methods of detecting tumor markers include, but are not limited to: Immunohistochemical IHC Analysis — Laboratory process of detecting an organism in tissues with antibodies.
Gene mutation testing can purportedly be used to find somatic mutations in cancerous cells that are not inherited. Some examples of genes that may have somatic mutations include: Individualized molecular tumor profiling is a laboratory method of testing a panel of tumor markers, which may include genetic as well as biochemical markers, to establish a personalized molecular profile of a tumor to recommend treatment options.-a narrative description of a diagnostic or therapeutic radiology procedure, A radiologist examines the radiography and provides a written report, which includes a detailed interrration of the radiography and his or her impressions.
Wherever you study, you will need to show that you have an understanding of radiotherapy. It is a good idea to spend some time with a registered diagnostic radiographer to see what the work is like. It is a good idea to spend some time with a registered diagnostic radiographer to see what the work is like.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Reflection is an important and powerful strategy for the use of development in professional skills; as it enables the link between the practice and theoretical aspect of learning to help moving from a beginner to a skilled practitioner.
A significant part of a three-year Bsc degree in diagnostic or therapeutic radiography is spent working in a diagnostic radiography or radiotherapy departments. There is time spent in the classroom of course, but most time is on placements.
CPCC Program Areas Accounting. The Accounting curriculum is designed to provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary for employment and growth in the accounting profession.
In this lesson we learn how historical accuracy comes into play in 'The Grapes of Wrath' and how the intercalary chapters provide a larger context for the non intercalary chapters.