Old World - pertaining to areas of the world having the longest period of documented human habitation: Usually a small group of wealthy individuals. P pacification - extending the authority of national government over formerly autonomous people whether by force or persuasion.
A ground-stone slab with a concave upper surface used as a lower millstone against which another stone is rubbed to grind A definition and discussion of extensive subsistence material such as cereal grains, seeds, nuts, etc.
A metate is one of a two-part milling apparatus -- the other part being with a mano handheld upper grindstone. Metates are found in agricultural and preagricultural contexts over much of the world and are often made of volcanic rock in Mesoamerica.
It is a Spanish term for the smoothed, usually immobile, stone with a concave upper surface and is mostly associated with the grinding of maize. It is a hallmark artifact in the definition of prehistoric subsistence patterns.
An agricultural technique whereby forest vegetation is cut down annually and burned in place to prepare fields for crops -- slash-and-burn agriculture. Its derivation is from a term referring to the cultivation of maize fields, usually for only a few years, by swidden agriculture.
Depictions on Maya frescos and codices coupled with ethnographic evidence of modern-day methods of cultivation in the Maya Lowlands, gave rise to the theory that milpa agriculture was the basis of Maya subsistence. Exhaustion of the land by its indiscriminate practice was long held to be a factor in the Maya collapse.
Its roots lie in the Cochise version of the Desert Culture in this area, but the Mogollon folk were settled agriculturists who lived in villages of pit houses; they were also strongly influenced by the Anasazi and Hohokam.
Evidence of maize and bean horticulture found at Bat Cave dates to earlier than BCbut unequivocally characteristic traits, such as plain brown pottery, do not appear until BC.
Although the tradition was agriculturally based, hunting and gathering continued to play some part in subsistence activities. Before c AD, typical communities were small villages of pit houses, located in easily defensible positions such as high mesas.
Larger villages often included a communal assembly building possibly early kiva and sometimes fortifications. From c AD, the Mogollon people came under the influence of their northern neighbors, the Anasazi, and began to build pueblos.
To this late period belongs some of the finest pottery of the American southwest, Mimbres ware, painted with stylized black animals on a white background. The culture is chronologically divided on the basis of architectural and pottery changes Pine Lawn period, about BC -AD ; Georgetown period, ; San Francisco period, ; Three Circle period, ; and Mimbres period, Unlike the Anasazi culture, the Mogollon culture did not survive as a recognizable group of modern Native Americans.
Remnants of the Mogollon may have merged with Anasazi peoples to become what is known as the Western Pueblo people.
The tradition has a number of regional variants: The analysis of molluscan remains, of both marine and land species, as part of the examination of the environment of man.
Edible species yield information on the subsistence economy of certain groups; in most cases it is the shells which survive.
The analysis of marine mollusks involves separation of the shells from the sample by wet sievingand the identification of varieties. The occurrence of mounds of discarded shell debris in shell middens also allows for a clear understanding of the collecting patterns, seasonal use, and preferences of man in the marine region.
Land snails are increasingly used as an adjunct to pollen and insect analysis in attempts to reconstruct past environments. A deeply stratified site in northwest Wyoming, containing 38 distinct cultural levels from which a series of radiocarbon dates was taken.
There is evidence of intermittent occupation from at least BC AD. Subsistence activities were not based on the Big Game Hunting Tradition normally associated with the Plains area, but was a general hunting and gathering lifestyle.
The cave is named for the desiccated body of an adult male who died there some years ago. Hunting and gathering were still the basis of subsistence, but some Natufian communities had adopted a settled mode of life and the period saw the development of cereal grain exploitation.
They built first permanent village settlements in pre-agricultural times in Palestine Mallaha and on middle Euphrates in Syria Mureybet, Abu Hureyra. A series of burials was excavated at Mount Carmel ; one important site is Wad Cave with a large cemetery, querns, sickles. The shrine at the base of the tell at Jericho was built during the Early Natufian phase, and the descendants of the Natufians built the earliest Neolithic town at the site.
The characteristic toolkit includes geometric microliths, sickles, pestles, mortars, fishing gear, and ornaments of bone and shell. Generally, Natufian sites demonstrate greater diversity in economy and more permanent settlement than earlier cultures.
A movement which began in America in the s, aimed at making archaeology more scientific, now more often called processual archaeology. It was suggested that explanations be based on carefully designed models of human behavior and emphasized the importance of understanding underlying cultural processes.
This new approach was controversial and is commonly associated with Lewis R. Binford and his students. Binford's New Perspectives in Archaeology" in stressed the following ideas: Although the proponents of the new archaeology have been criticized by more traditionally minded scholars their basic principles are now widely accepted.
A series of prehistoric groups of the northern California coast, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and southeastern Alaska, with origins in the Fraser River delta and clearly established by BC.The primary example of intensive subsistence agriculture would be rice growing, such as that found in East, South and Southeast Asia.
Extensive subsistence agriculture, on the other hand, is that which requires a lot of land to support relatively few people (i.e., low physiological density). Definition of subsistence farming 1: farming or a system of farming that provides all or almost all the goods required by the farm family usually without any significant surplus for sale 2: farming or a system of farming that produces a minimum and often inadequate return to the farmer.
Subsistence farming and intensive farming are two very different farming methodologies.
To start of subsistence farming, otherwise known as subsistence agriculture, is a very simple type of farming. Intensive subsistence agriculture is a type of agriculture that raises animals in a CAFO (Confined Animal Feeding Operation)-type operation or monoculture crops for the farmer and farm family's.
Extensive subsistence agriculture refers to an agricultural technique where a vast expanse of land is cultivated to yield minimal output of crops and animals for the primary consumption of the grower's family. Types of subsistence farming are 1. Primitive or Simple Subsistence Farming 2.
Intensive Subsistence Farming! 1. Primitive or Simple Subsistence Farming: Primitive farming is the oldest form of agriculture and still prevalent in some areas of the world.
From primitive gathering, some people have.